Care Plan

Treating symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) early is essential; babies exposed to PPD within the first year after childbirth can be at higher risk of having long-term negative outcomes.1-5

  1. Koutra K, Chatzi L, Bagkeris M, Vassilaki M, Bitsios P, Kogevinas M. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health as determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in a mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48(8):1335-1345.
  2. Woolhouse H, Gartland D, Mensah F, Giallo R, Brown S. Maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum and emotional/behavioural difficulties in children: results from a prospective pregnancy cohort study. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016;19(1):141-151.
  3. Netsi E, Pearson RM, Murray L, Cooper P, Craske MG, Stein A. Association of persistent and severe postnatal depression with child outcomes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(3):247-253.
  4. Hanington L, Heron J, Stein A, Ramchandani P. Parental depression and child outcomes—is marital conflict the missing link? Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38(4):520-529.
  5. Surkan PJ, Ettinger AK, Hock RS, Ahmed S, Strobino DM, Minkovitz CS. Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort. BMC Pediatr. 2014;12:185.